Thursday, November 24, 2022

What Is Solid Phase Extraction

Use Included Spe Product Instructions As A Guide

Solid Phase Extraction (SPE) Tutorial

Given the vast variation between different types of samples, analytes, and analyses, no single SPE method will work for everyone. Instead, after developing an understanding of your sample, and pairing that with an appropriate SPE product, that product will have its own set of instructions that can be referenced and refined to meet your particular analytical objectives.

Solid Phase Extraction What Is That

Good data out requires good data in.

I have heard many versions of that phrase over the course of my career. The statement could apply to a wide range of topics however, as a chemist, the basic premise highlights to me the importance of proper sample preparation before analysis.

Generating analytical scientific data that is accurate, precise and reproducible is not a trivial task and is dependent on many factors. The analytical workflow Im used to following can be broken down into 4 basic steps: sample collection, sample preparation, sample analysis and data reporting.

As a chemist, I needed to follow this process, while ensuring that the analytes of interest could be measured and quantified with the sensitivity and accuracy that the application required. In other words, it was my responsibility to ensure that the stuff I was looking for could be found. The key to successful data generation was managing the challenges and pitfalls inherent within the workflow.

Based on experience, those samples or applications which posed the greatest challenges were those that required the most careful sample preparation. Whether I was diluting or preconcentrating the sample to adjust the analyte concentrations or removing the analytes from the sample matrix to avoid subsequent interferences, sample preparation was often the most time-consuming step in my workflow.

Not familiar with solid-phase extraction? Not to worry. Heres a whiteboard video to help clarify.

Solvent Wash To Remove Interferences

Purpose: To wash the stationary phase using an intermediary solvent to remove impurities bound less strongly to the sorbent than the compounds of interest.

  • Select a wash solvent that is strong enough to remove the interferences, but weak enough to leave the compounds of interest behind
  • Selectively rinse away the less strongly bonded interferences
  • Wash solvent selected according to phase mechanism and analyte properties

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Do You Need Help Developing An Spe Method

There are a lot of choices to make when establishing an SPE method, but the foundations laid out in this article outline the first steps to get started. Solid phase extraction can be thought of as chromatography under a different name. As you delve deeper into developing an SPE method, you may have questions specific to your matrix, target analytes, and analysis. Were here to help because chromatography is what we do.

Contact your local Restek representative today at www.restek.com/contact-us with any questions you have about using SPE in your lab.

Global Solid Phase Extraction Spe Consumables Market Insights And Forecast To 2028

Solid
  • Category:Machines

Solid Phase Extraction SPE Consumables market is segmented by Type and by Application. Players, stakeholders, and other participants in the global Solid Phase Extraction SPE Consumables market will be able to gain the upper hand as they use the report as a powerful resource. The segmental analysis focuses on production capacity, revenue and forecast by Type and by Application for the period 2017-2028.Segment by Type

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What Are The Steps In The Solid Phase Extraction Process

There are typically 5 steps associated with traditional SPE under the moniker of catch and release.

  • Conditioning: Priming the cartridge for it to accept your analyte of interest
  • Equilibrating: Priming the cartridge for it to accept your analyte of interest
  • Loading Sample: This is the catching portion of SPE
  • Wash: After catching your analytes of interest, you will then wash away any interferences.
  • Elution: The final step is the releasing part of SPE.
  • What Is Dispersive Solid Phase Extraction

    QuEChERS Dispersive Solid Phase Extraction. Dispersive solid phase extraction analysis is a simple and straightforward sample preparation technique suitable for a wide variety of food and agricultural products. One specific method which has become popular is the QuEChERS technique which was created to facilitate the rapid screening

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    Commercial Mediasolid Phase Extraction Sample Preparation Protocol

    SPE, whether manual, automated on a liquid handler or online, is essentially a low resolution chromatographic process. Like LLE, SPE was in wide use for HPLC-UV and GC-MS methods prior to the advent of LC-MS/MS. There is abundant literature on SPE sample preparation for LC-MS/MS as well as application notes and extensive support from SPE media vendors . SPE chemistries for use with aqueous matrices are categorized as ion-exchange, reverse-phase, HILIC, or mixed-mode. Reverse phase SPE is less selective than mixed-mode SPE or LLE and is primarily useful for removing salts and polar matrix components. Nonpolar wash solutions that would remove neutral interferences from reverse phase SPE will also wash analytes to waste, as the only retention mechanism is adsorption to the stationary reverse-phase.

    In contrast, mixed-mode SPE becomes highly selective by including an anion or cation exchange moiety in the same bed with the reverse-phase component . This dual functionality is a powerful tool for removing matrix, because charged analytes can be retained with the ion exchange moiety while matrix is removed from the reverse phase with nonpolar wash solutions.

    S.J. Lehotay, F.J. Schenck, in, 2000

    Thermo Scientific Spe Cartridges And Well Plates

    On-Line Solid Phase Extraction

    Table 4 illustrates the broad range of solid phase extraction phases and formats offered to solve sample preparation need of a broad spectrum of samples, sample volume, and application requirements, as well as throughput constraints.

    • Thermo Scientific HyperSep cartridges and well plats are the gold standard in SPE products.
    • Thermo Scientific SOLA and SOLA SPE well plates and cartridges are ideal for biosamples, including low-volume samples for bioanalysis.
    Table 4. Thermo Scientific SPE phases in cartridge and well plate format
    Reversed Phase

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    Pdf Solid Phase Extraction Technique Trends

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    Solid Phase Extraction, Solid Phase Extraction Chromatography Consumables, Automated Solid Phase Extraction Spe System Aurora Biomed,

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    Sample Preparation Is The Under

    Solid-phase extraction is a highly selective sample preparation technique widely used to:

    • Purify and extract the sample of interest from complex matrices for better chromatographic analysis , longer column lifetime, and reduced system maintenance.
    • Concentrate the sample of interest for improved sensitivity and reproducibility.
    • Reduce ion suppression for mass spectrometric application.
    • Fractionate samples to allow analysis by class.

    This article will help analysts get the most from this powerful technique. Well examine some of the most common challenges in SPE and address how to overcome them.

    This technique is, in fact, governed by the same principles as liquid chromatography. Consequently, the basics are familiar to most analytical chemists.

    SPE utilizes differences in affinity between the analyte and the interferent in the matrix for the solid phase . It is valued for its high selectivity, reproducibility, ease of use, and rapid extractions typically 30 minutes or less. Other advantages include good quantitative recovery, low solvent requirements, and ease of automation.

    SPE is used to extract specific analytes of interest unlike liquidliquid extraction, which targets broader classes of compounds. Available sorbent chemistries and advances in technology make SPE a versatile technique used in pharmaceutical, biomedical, clinical and environmental applications, among others.

    Now lets explore some common SPE challenges.

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    The Principle Of Solid Phase Extraction

    1. Concept: Solid phase extraction is a sample pretreatment method based on chromatographic separation.

    2. Composition: Solid phase extraction includes a solid phase and a liquid phase . The liquid sample passes through a solid phase extraction device equipped with a solid adsorbent under the action of positive pressure, negative pressure or gravity.

    3. Principle: Since the stationary phase adsorbent has different functional groups, specific compounds can be adsorbed and retained on the SPE column. The principle of similar compatibility means that the solute composed of polar molecules is easily soluble in the solvent composed of polar molecules due to the electrical interaction between polar molecules. A solvent dissolved in a non-polar molecule a solute composed of a non-polar molecule is easily soluble in a solvent composed of a non-polar molecule, and is insoluble in a solvent composed of a polar molecule.

    4. Mode:

    A. Target compound adsorption mode: When the sample passes through the SPE column, the functional group of the adsorbent acts on the target compound, the target compound remains on the SPE column, and the sample matrix is discarded.

    Step:

    Spe Products For Special Applications

    Stages of solid phase extraction (SPE).

    For some specific pharmacologically active substances and body fluids, special phases are available for purification and sample preparation. For example, the manufacturer UCT offers several materials for the purification and extraction of ethyl glucoronide , tetrahydrocannabilol and their metabolites, gamma-hydroxybutyric acid and some other special substances.

    For general drug, food and environmental analysis are also suitable phases on the market, where thorough sample preparation is of major importance .

    More information

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    What Is The Use Of Sample Preparation

    Remove interferences from matrix

    • Less instrument downtime
    • Less ion suppression
    • Improved reproducibility

    Prepared samples for separation and detection

    • Solvent compatibility with mobile phase
    • Better chromatographic results

    SiliCycle offers SPE products to meet your specific purification needs. SiliaSiliaPrep products are available in different types of SPE cartridges and well plates:

    • Bed weights from 1 mL/50 mg to 25 mL/5 g.
    • Larger bed weights are available in Silia OT.

    SiliaPrep cartridges are packed with fines-free SiliaFlash® silica gel sorbents or SiliaBond® chromatographic phases.

    The well plates are used in high throughput combinatorial chemistry, drug discovery and screening, metabolic pharmacokinetic applications, and for automated methods such as a multiprobe approach.

    The Fundamentals Of Solid Phase Extraction

    It would be ideal if every sample could be accurately and precisely analyzed without the need for any sample preparation. Unfortunately, thats usually not the case. Often, the matrix that may or may not contain the analytes being studied can interfere with both qualitative and quantitative analyses. And, when faced with a particularly complex matrix and/or analytes present at very low concentrations, dilution is no longer an option, and more active sample preparation steps are needed.

    There are a wide variety of possible sample preparation options, but one of the most prominent techniques is solid phase extraction, or SPE. If you need to separate matrix components from your sample so you can monitor analytes without interference, then SPE is likely going to be a useful technique. SPE can be thought of as liquid chromatography without an instrument or chromatogram as the same principles that affect the separations in an analytical liquid or gas chromatograph are employed.

    This article provides insight into how to make the best SPE choice for your sample and analytical goals. It covers the basic principles of SPE, its main separation mechanisms, typical objectives and strategies, formats and characteristics, and method development and cross-referencing. Since there is no one set of steps that applies to all situations, this article is intended to introduce you to a family of SPE products that have instruction sheets with detailed steps to guide you.

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    Did You Know: Spe Is The Process Of Utilizing A Liquid Solvent To Extract Solid Materials

    Solid Phase Extraction is an extractive process by which molecules in their solidphase are separated from each other based upon physical and chemical properties. This process is achieved by the extraction of certain compounds into a liquidor solventand the subsequent separation from the remaining solid material, ultimately resulting in a liquid solution.

    Specifically, in the extraction of cannabis and hemp products, SPE is typically performed using either ethanol, hydrocarbon , or liquid CO2.

    What Is Solid Phase Extraction Used For

    Solid Phase Extraction 101

    4.1/5Solid Phase ExtractionSolid phase extractionsolidused

    In this regard, what does solid phase mean?

    solidphase. Noun. One of the three fundamental structural phases of matter in which the cohesive force of matter is strong enough to keep the molecules or atoms in the given positions, restraining the thermal mobility.

    One may also ask, what is liquid solid extraction? Solidliquid extraction is a separation process based on the preferential dissolution of one or more of the components of a solid mixture in a liquid solvent.

    Moreover, what form of chromatography is SPE?

    Solid Phase Extraction

    How do you pack a SPE cartridge?

    Pack a SPE Cartridge in Three Steps

  • Loading Bottom Frit. Push the bottom frit to the bottom of the cartridge using a push rod.
  • Filling Sorbent. Keep the cartridge upright, place stemmed funnel onto the cartridge, add required amount of sorbent to the cartridge via the funnel.
  • Loading Top Frit.
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    What Is A Solid Phase Extraction

    Solid phase extraction is the name of a process that separates solid and liquid substances in a chemical solution. The extraction is most often accomplished by passing the sample through a column that is packed with a sorbent, which allows the liquid to pass through the apparatus while the solid remains are collected above. The purpose of solid phase extraction is to concentrate and purify samples for further study. These analytes might be contained in the solid or liquid matter. If the solid is the material to be analyzed, it will then be purified by a solvent rinse.

    A general solid phase extraction utilizes a disposable cartridge that resembles a medical syringe. This cartridge sits atop a vacuum manifold to maximize the rate at which the solvent flows through the column. The cartridge contains C18-silica, which acts as a sorbent and is held in position with frits. A collection tube is positioned below the SPE column to receive the liquid removed from the mixture.

    The chemist typically uses a four-step process when performing a SPE. The first step involves equilibrating the cartridge by wetting the surface with a solvent that is non-polar or only slightly polar. This accomplishes penetration of the covalently bonded phase so that separation can begin.

    Spe Sample Cleanup And Enrichment

    Remove interfering compounds by:

    • Selective adsorption of analytes + interferences
    • Selective elution of interferences
    • Selective elution and collection of analytes

    Enrich/concentrate analytes by:

    • Small elution volume
    • Evaporation/reconstitution

    SPE can therefore improve analytical results in HPLC, GC, IC, and MS analyses by reducing the complexity of a sample, reducing baseline interferences, and/or increasing detection sensitivity. Employing solid phase extraction sample preparation can also reduce harmful compounds introduced into the chromatography system thereby extending the longevity of the analytical column and instrument. It is, therefore, easy to see why SPE is widely used by chromatographers in pharmaceutical, environmental, forensics, and food safety applications.

    SPE uses significantly smaller volumes of solvent compared to liquid/liquid extraction and supported liquid extraction methods.

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    Elevating Reproducibility And Recovery In Solid

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    Recent years have seen significant advances in separation science, leading to the development of novel technologies that can overcome the challenges traditionally encountered in SPE workflows. Increasingly, these innovative products are supporting the development of robust, efficient and easy-to-use SPE methods that enhance sensitivity, reproducibility and precision in bioanalysis.

    What Are The Differences Between The Various Spe Materials

    Beginner

    For solid phase extraction, the same stationary phases are used as in chromatography columns. They are based on silica gel, alumina, magnesium silicate, graphitized carbon or polymeric phases, such as styrene-divinylbenzene copolymer. The “standard” phases, based on silica gel or polystyrene-divinylbenzene, are available in a variety of modifications or also as mixed-mode phases. The pore sizes used here range from about 60 Å to 500 Å, so that a suitable material is available for a wide range of molecular sizes. The particle sizes used are in the range of approximately 13 to 500 m, while the range of 40 to 100 m being most widely used.

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    Beginner’s Guide To Spe

    A Powerful Tool for Improved Sample Preparation

    As an analytical scientist, you are faced with many challenges when determining what tools you can best use to achieve the desired result. Determining which sample preparation tools and approaches are important considerations that can significantly impact your success.

    Ideally, you would be happy if you did not have to do any sample preparation. In reality, however, sample preparation is often necessary. You may need to optimize a method for an existing sample to improve throughput or lower the cost per analysis. Or, you may be asked to analyze a wide variety of different types of samples to report on new compounds of interest. Each new sample type can present different analytical challenges. In addition, scientists today are faced with the significant challenge of reporting values at lower concentration levels than ever before, without compromising accuracy and precision.

    This book is designed to help you explore and understand a very powerful tool in sample preparation technology: solid-phase extraction . You will see how this technology, which uses devices with chromatographic packing material, can help meet your analytical challenges.

    Definiton of Solid-Phase Extraction

    Figure 1: Examples of an SPE Method

    The chromatographic bed can be used to separate the different compounds in a sample, to make subsequent analytical testing more successful. For example, SPE is often used for the selective removal of interferences.

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